You've gotta log in to post
Sign up
Welcome enter your info to get started.
First name
By continuing, you agree to our Terms of Service & Privacy Policy

Sign in
Welcome enter your info to get started
By continuing, you agree to our Terms of Service & Privacy Policy

Lost your password?

New-age music

post earnings $0

This article is about the 1973–1980s music genre. For other New Wave artistic movements, see List of New Wave movements. Not to be confused with New-age music.

This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article possibly contains inappropriate or misinterpreted citations that do not verify the text. (July 2016) This article may contain indiscriminate, excessive, or irrelevant examples. (August 2019) This article may need to be rewritten to comply with Wikipedia’s quality standards. (July 2020)
New wave
Stylistic originsPunk rock[1][2][3] power pop[4][2][5] glam rock[6] pub rock[7] bubblegum[2][8] disco[9][10] electronic[2] pop[4][2][5] glam punk[11] progressive rock[12][full citation needed] rhythm and blues[4] reggae[4]
Cultural originsMid-to late 1970s, United Kingdom and United States
Derivative formsSynth-pop,[13] Alternative dance,[14] alternative rock,[15] neo-psychedelia,[16] indie pop[15]
cold wave[17] dark wave[18]
Regional scenes
Germany Philippines[19] Yugoslavia[20]
Other topics
No wavepop punkpop rockpost-discopost-punk

New wave is a broad music genre that encompasses numerous pop-oriented styles from the late 1970s and the 1980s.[2] It was originally used as a catch-all term for the music that emerged after punk rock,[21] including punk itself, but may be viewed retrospectively as a more accessible counterpart of post-punk.[22] Although new wave shares punk’s do-it-yourself philosophy, the artists were more influenced by the lighter strains of 1960s pop while being opposed to the generally abrasive, political bents of punk rock and what was considered to be creatively stagnant corporate rock.[5]

Common characteristics of new wave music include a humorous or quirky pop approach, the use of electronic sounds, and a distinctive visual style in music videos and fashion.[22][5] In the early 1980s, virtually every new pop/rock act – and particularly those that include synthesizers in their sound – were tagged as “new wave”.[22] By the 2000s, critical consensus favored “new wave” as an umbrella term that encompasses power pop, synth-pop, ska revival, and soft strains of punk rock.[8]

New wave commercially peaked in the late 1970s and the early 1980s with numerous major artists and an abundance of one-hit wonders. MTV, which was launched in 1981, heavily promoted new-wave acts, boosting the genre’s popularity.[22] In the mid-1980s, new wave declined with the emergence of the New Romantic, New Pop, and New Music genres.[23] Since the 1990s, new wave resurged several times with the growing nostalgia for several new-wave-influenced artists.[24][25][26]



New wave includes several pop-oriented styles from the late 1970s and the 1980s.[2] It originally represented a break from the blues and rock and roll music of the late-1960s to mid-1970s.[27] Common characteristics of new wave music include a humorous or quirky pop approach, the use of electronic sounds, and a distinctive visual style in music videos and fashion.[22] According to Simon Reynolds, new wave music had a twitchy, agitated feel. New wave musicians often played choppy rhythm guitars with fast tempos; keyboards, and stop-start song structures and melodies are common. Reynolds noted new-wave vocalists sound high-pitched, geeky, and suburban.[27]

Although new wave shares punk’s do-it-yourself artistic philosophy, the artists were more influenced by the light strains of 1960s pop while opposed to mainstream “corporate” rock, which they considered creatively stagnant, and the generally abrasive and political bents of punk rock.[5] In the early 1980s, new wave acts embraced a crossover of rock music with African and African-American styles. Adam and the Ants and Bow Wow Wow, both acts with ties to former Sex Pistols manager Malcolm McLaren, used Burundi-style drumming.[28] Talking Heads‘ album Remain in Light was marketed and positively reviewed as a breakthrough melding of new wave and African styles, although drummer Chris Frantz said he found out about this supposed African influence after the fact.[29] Second British Invasion acts were influenced by funk and disco.[30]

Blondie, 1976. L–R: Gary Valentine, Clem Burke, Deborah Harry, Chris Stein and Jimmy Destri.

The majority of American, male, new wave acts of the late 1970s were from Caucasian, middle-class backgrounds. Scholar Theo Cateforis said these acts intentionally presented these exaggerated, nerdy tendencies associated with their “whiteness” to criticize it and to reflect their identity.[31] A nervous, nerdy persona was a common characteristic of new wave fans, and acts such as Talking Heads, Devo, and Elvis Costello.[32] This took the forms of robotic dancing, jittery high-pitched vocals, and clothing fashions that hid the body such as suits and big glasses.[33] This seemed radical to audiences accustomed to post-counterculture genres such as disco dancing and macho “cock rock” that emphasized a “hang loose” philosophy, open sexuality, and sexual bravado.[31]

Origins, etymology, and scope

The term “new wave” is regarded as so loose and wide-ranging as to be “virtually meaningless”, according to the New Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock.[34] It was originally used as a catch-all for the music that emerged after punk rock, including punk itself.[22] The 1985 discography Who’s New Wave in Music listed artists in over 130 categories.[34] Reflecting its British origins, the 2004 study “Popular Music Genres: An Introduction” had one paragraph about 1970s new wave artists in its punk chapter, in contrast to a 20-page chapter on early 1980s synth-pop.[35] AllMusic said the term may be viewed retrospectively as a more accessible counterpart of post-punk.[22]

Talking Heads performing in Toronto in 1978

As early as 1973, critics including Nick Kent and Dave Marsh were using the term “new wave” to classify New-York-based groups such as the Velvet Underground and New York Dolls.[36] In the US, many of the first new wave groups were the not-so-punk acts associated with CBGB (e.g. Talking Heads, Mink DeVille and Blondie),[24] as well as the proto-punk scene in Ohio, which included Devo, the electric eels, Rocket from the Tombs, and Pere Ubu.[37][38] Some important bands, such as Suicide and the Modern Lovers, debuted even earlier.[39] CBGB owner Hilly Kristal, referring to the first show by Television at his club in March 1974, said; “I think of that as the beginning of new wave”.[40] Many artists who would have originally been classified as punk were also termed new wave. A 1977 Phonogram Records compilation album of the same name (New Wave) includes American artists Dead Boys, Ramones, Talking Heads, and The Runaways.[24][41]

Between 1976 and 1977, the terms “new wave” and “punk” were used somewhat interchangeably.[23][42] Music historian Vernon Joynson said new wave emerged in the UK in late 1976, when many bands began disassociating themselves from punk.[3] That year, the term gained currency when it appeared in UK punk fanzines such as Sniffin’ Glue, and music weeklies such as Melody Maker and New Musical Express.[43] In November 1976, Caroline Coon used Malcolm McLaren‘s term “new wave” to designate music by bands that were not exactly punk but were related to the punk-music scene.[44] The mid-1970s British pub rock scene was the source of many of the most-commercially-successful new wave acts, such as Ian Dury, Nick Lowe, Eddie and the Hot Rods, and Dr. Feelgood.[45]

In the US, Sire Records chairman Seymour Stein, believing the term “punk” would mean poor sales for Sire’s acts who had frequently played the New York club CBGB, launched a “Don’t Call It Punk” campaign designed to replace the term with “new wave”.[46] Because radio consultants in the US had advised their clients punk rock was a fad, they settled on the new term. Like the filmmakers of the French New Wave movement, after whom the genre was named, new wave artists such as Ramones and Talking Heads were anti-corporate and experimental. At first, most American writers used the term “new wave” exclusively in reference to British punk acts.[47] Starting in December 1976, The New York Rocker, which was suspicious of the term “punk”, became the first American journal to enthusiastically use the term, at first for British acts and later for acts associated with the CBGB scene.[43] The music’s stripped-back style and upbeat tempos, which Stein and others viewed as a much-needed return to the energetic rush of rock and roll and 1960s rock that had dwindled in the 1970s with progressive rock and stadium spectacles, attracted them to new wave.[48]

The term “post-punk” was coined to describe groups who were initially considered part of new wave but were more ambitious, serious, challenging, darker, and less pop-oriented.[according to whom?] Some of these groups later adopted synthesizers.[49] While punk rock wielded a major influence on the popular music scene in the UK, in the US it remained a fixture of the underground.[48] In the UK, some post-punk music developments became mainstream.[50] According to Music critic David Smay writing in 2001:

Current critical thought discredits new wave as a genre, deriding it as a marketing ploy to soft-sell punk, a meaningless umbrella term covering bands too diverse to be considered alike. Powerpop, synth-pop, ska revival, art school novelties and rebranded pub rockers were all sold as “New Wave.”[8]

By the end of 1977, “new wave” had replaced “punk” as the term for new underground music in the UK.[43] In early 1978, XTC released the single “This Is Pop” as a direct response to tags such as “new wave”. Songwriter Andy Partridge later stated of bands such as themselves who were given those labels; “Let’s be honest about this. This is pop, what we’re playing … don’t try to give it any fancy new names, or any words that you’ve made up, because it’s blatantly just pop music. We were a new pop group. That’s all.”[51]

In the early 1980s, new wave gradually lost its associations with punk in popular perception. Writing in 1989, music critic Bill Flanagan said; “Bit by bit the last traces of Punk were drained from New Wave, as New Wave went from meaning Talking Heads to meaning the Cars to Squeeze to Duran Duran to, finally, Wham!”.[52] Virtually every new pop rock act, and particularly those that included synthesizers in their sound, were tagged as “new wave”.[22] Starting around 1983, the US music industry preferred the more generic term “New Music“, which it used to categorize new movements like New Pop and New Romanticism.[53] In Britain, journalists and music critics largely abandoned the terms “new wave” and “new music” in favor of subgenre terms such as “synth-pop”.[54]

New wave was closely tied to punk, and came and went more quickly in the UK and Western Europe than in the US. At the time punk began, it was a major phenomenon in the UK and a minor one in the US. When new wave acts started being noticed in the US, the term “punk” meant little to mainstream audiences, and it was common for rock clubs and discos to play British dance mixes and videos between live sets by American guitar acts.[55] By the 2000s, critical consensus favored “new wave” to be an umbrella term that encompasses power pop, synth-pop, ska revival, and the soft strains of punk rock.[8]

Popularity in the United States (1970s–1980s)

Painting of a Devo energy dome hat

This section possibly contains synthesis of material which does not verifiably mention or relate to the main topic. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. (May 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

In mid-1977, Time[56] and Newsweek wrote favorable lead stories on the “punk/new wave” movement.[57] Acts associated with the movement received little or no radio airplay, or music industry support. Small scenes developed in major cities. Continuing into the next year, public support remained limited to select elements of the artistic, bohemian, and intellectual population[43] as arena rock and disco dominated the charts.[58]

Starting in late 1978 and continuing into 1979, acts associated with punk and acts that mixed punk with other genres began to make chart appearances and receive airplay on rock stations and rock discos.[59] Blondie, Talking Heads, The Police, and The Cars charted during this period.[23][58]My Sharona“, a single from The Knack, was Billboard magazine’s number-one single of 1979; its success, combined with new wave albums being much cheaper to produce during the music industry’s worst slump in decades,[59] prompted record companies to sign new wave groups.[23] New wave music scenes developed in Ohio[58] and the college town Athens, Georgia with iconic bands such as the B-52s and R.E.M.[60] In 1980, there were brief forays into new-wave-style music by non-new-wave artists Billy Joel, Donna Summer, and Linda Ronstadt.[23]

An African-American “new wave” also arose in the US in the late 1970s and early 1980s, driven, according to AllMusic, by “drum machines, synthesizers and programming [becoming] common studio tools”.[citation needed] Following the minimalist approach of Stevie Wonder and Parliament-Funkadelic, post-disco explored the electronic and experimental side of African-American music by incorporating Jamaican music, electronic art music, jazz, blues, and in the latter years European and Japanese synthesizer music.[61] Expanding disco music, post-disco took many forms, such as the rhythm and blues-based NYC boogie, the post-punk–based alternative dance, the underground-club-culture-centered Chicago house with its own style of dance called jacking, and futurism–leaning[62] Detroit techno. According to Afrika Bambaataa (“Renegades of Funk“) and Arthur Baker, embracing new wave, synth-pop music[63] was influential to both underground and mainstream black dance music electro, dance-rock, and Minneapolis sound.

Early in 1980, influential radio consultant Lee Abrams wrote a memo saying with a few exceptions, “we’re not going to be seeing many of the new wave circuit acts happening very big [in the US]. As a movement, we don’t expect it to have much influence.”[citation needed] Lee Ferguson, a consultant to KWST, said in an interview Los Angeles radio stations were banning disc jockeys from using the term and noted; “Most of the people who call music new wave are the ones looking for a way not to play it”.[64] Despite the success of Devo’s socially critical but widely misunderstood song “Whip It“,[65] second albums by artists who had successful debut albums, along with newly signed artists, failed to sell and stations pulled most new-wave programming.[23]

In 1981, the start of MTV began new wave’s most successful era in the US. British artists, unlike many of their American counterparts, had learned how to use the music video early on.[58][66] Several British acts on independent labels were able to outmarket and outsell American artists on major labels, a phenomenon journalists labeled the “Second British Invasion“.[66][67] MTV continued its heavy rotation of videos by new wave-oriented acts until 1987, when it changed to a heavy- -metal and rock-dominated format.[68]

Martha Davis of the Motels performs at Hollywood Park.

In a December-1982 Gallup poll, 14% of teenagers rated new wave as their favorite type of music, making it the third-most-popular genre.[69] New wave had its greatest popularity on the West Coast. Unlike other genres, race was not a factor in the popularity of new wave music, according to the poll.[69] Urban contemporary radio stations were the first to play dance-oriented new wave artists such as the B-52’s, Culture Club, Duran Duran, and ABC.[70]

New wave soundtracks were used in mainstream Brat Pack films such as Sixteen Candles, Pretty in Pink, and The Breakfast Club, as well as in the low-budget hit Valley Girl.[58][71] John Hughes, the director of several of these films, was enthralled with British new wave music, and placed songs from acts such as The Psychedelic Furs, Simple Minds, Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, and Echo and the Bunnymen in his films, helping to keep new wave in the mainstream. Several of these songs remain standards of the era.[72] Critics described the MTV acts of the period as shallow or vapid.[58][66] Homophobic slurs were used to describe some of the new wave musicians.[73] Despite the criticism, the danceable quality of the music and the quirky fashion sense associated with new wave artists appealed to audiences.[58]

In September 1988, Billboard launched its Modern Rock chart, the acts on which reflected a wide variety of stylistic influences. New wave’s legacy remained in the large influx of acts from the UK, and acts that were popular in rock discos, as well as the chart’s name, which reflects the way new wave was marketed as “modern”.[74] New wave’s indie spirit was crucial to the development of college rock and grunge/alternative rock in the latter half of the 1980s and onward.[58]

Post-1980s revivals and influence

Indie and alternative rock

See also: Post-punk revival

Franz Ferdinand performing in 2006

New wave declined in popularity after the mid-1980s,to be replaced by guitar-driven rock acts who reacted against new wave.[75] In the aftermath of grunge, the British music press launched a campaign to promote the new wave of new wave that involved overtly punk and new-wave-influenced acts such as Elastica, but it was eclipsed by Britpop.[24] During that decade, the synthesizer-heavy dance sounds of British and European new-wave acts influenced Euro disco and trance.[15][58]

During the 2000s, a number of acts that exploited a diversity of new wave and post-punk influences emerged. These acts were sometimes labeled “New New Wave”.[76][77] AllMusic notes the emergence of these acts “led journalists and music fans to talk about a post-punk/new wave revival” while arguing it was “really more analogous to a continuum, one that could be traced back as early as the mid-’80s”.[25]

Electronic music

See also: Dance-punk, Electroclash, New rave, and Synthwave

During the mid-2000s, new rave combined new wave with elements from genres such as indie rock and electro house,[78] and added aesthetic elements archetypal of raves, such as light shows and glow sticks.[79][80][81]


Cateforis 2011, pp. 9–12. Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. “New Wave”. AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Archived from the original on 25 October 2010. Retrieved 4 May 2014. Joynson, Vernon (2001). Up Yours! A Guide to UK Punk, New Wave & Early Post Punk. Wolverhampton: Borderline Publications. p. 11. ISBN1-899855-13-0. Larson, Thomas E. (2014). History of Rock and Roll (4 ed.). Lincoln, Nebraska: Kendall Hunt. p. 269. ISBN978-1-4652-3886-3. “New wave”. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 26 May 2020. Lynch, Joe (14 January 2016). “David Bowie Influenced More Musical Genres Than Any Other Rock Star”. Billboard. Retrieved 20 October 2016. Cateforis 2011, p. 69. Cooper, Kim, Smay, David, Bubblegum Music is the Naked Truth (2001), page 248 “Nobody took the bubblegum ethos to heart like the new wave bands”/ “The New Synthesizer Rock”. Keyboard. June 1982. Retrieved 15 May 2011. “Bernard Edwards, 43, Musician In Disco Band and Pop Producer”. The New York Times. 22 April 1996. As disco waned in the late 70s, so did Chic’s album sales. But its influence lingered on as new wave, rap and dance-pop bands found inspiration in Chic’s club anthems Brian McNair, Striptease Culture: Sex, Media and the Democratization of Desire (London: Routledge, 2002), ISBN0-415-23734-3, p. 136. Martin 2002, p. 99. Synth Pop at AllMusic Pirnia, Garin (13 March 2010). “Is Chillwave the Next Big Music Trend?”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 15 May 2011. Gordon, Claire (23 October 2009). “The decade that never dies Still ’80s Fetishizing in ’09 Yale Daily News”. Archived from the original on 13 February 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2011. Shaw, Greg (14 January 1978). “New Trends of the New Wave”. Billboard. Retrieved 23 November 2015. Jérôme Pintoux Déluges sonores et clips des Eighties Camion Blanc, 2014, ISBN2-357-79654-5
“Au seuil des années 80, on appelait New Wave tout ce qui sortait, aussi bien Police que Visage, XTC, Marquis de Sade, Joe Jackson, … Au fil du temps, de nouvelles étiquettes sont apparues, ce qui n’a guère simplifié les choses: Cold Wave, Dark Wave, Batcave, Gothic, after Punk, Electro-Pop et tout le bataclan.” Ogiba, Jeff (11 July 2012). “A Brief History Of Musical Waves From NEW To NEXT”. Vice. Filipinojournal.comArchived 12 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine A Tribute to the ’80s Philippine New Wave Scene Božilović, Jelena (2013). “New Wave in Yugoslavia-Socio-Political Context” (PDF). Facta Universitatis. Philosophy, Sociology, Psychology and History. 12 (1): 69–83. Graham Thompson,American Culture in the 1980s, Edinburgh University Press, 2007, p. 163 “Music Genres – AllMusic”. AllMusic. Cateforis, Theo (2009). The Death of New Wave (PDF). IASPM US. San Diego. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2013. Peter Childs; Mike Storry (1999). Encyclopedia of Contemporary British Culture. Taylor & Francis. p. 365. ISBN978-0-415-14726-2. New Wave/Post Punk Revival Allmusic“Q&A with Theo Cateforis, author of Are We Not New Wave? Modern Pop at the Turn of the 1980s the University of Michigan Press 2011” (PDF). Reynolds, SimonRip It Up and Start Again PostPunk 1978–1984 p.160 Cateforis 2011, pp. 185–201. Cateforis 2011, pp. 203–211. Cateforis 2011, p. 203. Cateforis 2011, pp. 71–94. Theo Cateforis (7 June 2011). Are We Not New Wave?: Modern Pop at the Turn of the 1980s. University of Michigan Press. p. 75. ISBN978-0472034703. Theo Cateforis (7 June 2011). Are We Not New Wave?: Modern Pop at the Turn of the 1980s. University of Michigan Press. p. 84. ISBN978-0472034703. Theo Cateforis (7 June 2011). Are We Not New Wave?: Modern Pop at the Turn of the 1980s. University of Michigan Press. p. 11. ISBN978-0472034703. Cateforis 2011, pp. 220, 254. Cateforis 2011, p. 20. Savage, Jon (14 November 2013). “Cleveland’s early punk pioneers: from cultural vacuum to creative explosion”. The Guardian. ISSN0261-3077. Retrieved 6 October 2019. “Robert Christgau: A Real New Wave Rolls Out of Ohio”. Retrieved 6 October 2019. Rombes, Nicholas (18 February 2005). The Ramones’ Ramones. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. ISBN9781441103703. Clinton Heylin, Babylon’s Burning (Conongate, 2007), p. 17. Savage, Jon. (1991) England’s Dreaming, Faber & Faber Joynson, Vernon (2001). Up Yours! A Guide to UK Punk, New Wave & Early Post Punk. Wolverhampton: Borderline Publications. p. 12. ISBN1-899855-13-0. For a while in 1976 and 1977 the terms punk and new wave were largely interchangeable. By 1978, things were beginning to change, although the dividing line between punk and new wave was never very clear. Gendron, Bernard (2002). Between Montmartre and the Mudd Club: Popular Music and the Avant-Garde (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press), pp. 269–270. Clinton Heylin, Babylon’s Burning (Conongate, 2007), pp. 140, 172. Adams, Bobby. “Nick Lowe: A Candid Interview”, Bomp magazine, January 1979, reproduced at [1]. Retrieved 21 January 2007. Cateforis 2011, p. 25. Source: The Grove Dictionary of American Music, 2nd edition New 3 September 2014 Cateforis, Theo. “New Wave.” The Grove Dictionary of American Music, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press. 3 September 2014. Greil Marcus (1994). Ranters and Crowd Pleasers. Anchor Books. p. 109. Cateforis 2011, pp. 46–47. Bernhardt, Todd; Partridge, Andy (11 November 2007). “Andy discusses “This Is Pop””. Chalkhills. Cateforis 2011, p. 63. Cateforis 2011, pp. 12, 56. Cateforis 2011, p. 254. Cateforis 2011, pp. 46–47, 62. “Anthems of the Blank Generation”. Time. 11 July 1977. Archived from the original on 24 January 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2011. Genre Punk/New Wave Allmusic Graves, Steve. “New Wave Music”. St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. Retrieved 30 March 2019 – via Cateforis 2011, p. 37. American Punk Rock Allmusic Burnim, Mellonee V.; Maultsby, Portia K. (13 November 2014). African American Music: An Introduction. Routledge. p. 336. ISBN9781317934431. Butler, Mark J. (2017). Electronica, Dance and Club Music. Routledge. p. 456. ISBN9781351568548. [T]echno was a music that attempted to dislocate and deterritorialize itself, in looking to European electronic music, to new musical forms and technologies and ‘western’ futurist political theory. However, techno was not a rejection of an African American heritage but an attempt to engage with and consider the ‘full meaning of black identity.’ Atkins in particular adopted and adapted what was viewed by some as the most ‘white’ of ‘white music'[;] Cosgrove seemed more than a little surprised that Visage, Depeche Mode and the Human League could be the inspiration for techno. Sicko, D. (2010). Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk (2nd ed.). Wayne State University Press. ISBN978-0814334386. Just as Italo-disco had, new wave caught on with African American audiences in Detroit nowhere else in the United States. One could hear new wave’s offbeat and eclectic ingredients working themselves out in Detroit’s early electronic dance records, where groups like Human League, B-52s, and Visage were reconciled with Eurodisco, the Midwestern funk of George Clinton, Zapp, the Ohio Players, and, subconsciously, the soul of Motown. Goldstein, Patrick (16 February 2010). “Is New-Wave Rock on the Way Out?”. Retrieved 15 May 2011. Allmusic Whip It Review “But even though most of the listening public took “Whip It” as just a catchy bit of weirdness with nonsensical lyrics about a vaguely sexy topic, the song’s actual purpose – like much of Devo’s work – was social satire. Putting the somewhat abstract lyrics together, “Whip It” emerges as a sardonic portrait of a general, problematic aspect of the American psyche: the predilection for using force and violence to solve problems, vent frustration, and prove oneself to others” Rip It Up and Start Again Postpunk 1978–1984 by Simon Reynolds Pages 340, 342–343 “1986 Knight Ridder news article”. 3 October 1986. Retrieved 15 May 2011. Holden, Stephen (15 June 1988). “The Pop Life”. The New York Times. Retrieved 15 May 2011. “Rock Still Favorite Teen-Age music”. Gainesville Sun. 13 April 1983. Retrieved 15 May 2011. “Crossover: Pop Music thrives on black-white blend”. Knight Ridder News Service. 4 September 1986. Retrieved 15 May 2011. “But what does it all mean? How to decode the John Hughes high school movies”. The Guardian. UK. 26 September 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2011. Gora, Susannah (7 March 2010). “Why John Hughes Still Matters”. MTV. Retrieved 15 May 2011. Cateforis 2011, p. 233. Cateforis 2011, pp. 65–66. Cateforis 2011, pp. 57–62. Paoletta, Michael (17 September 2004). “New wave is back – in hot new bands”. Retrieved 15 May 2011. “Gwen Stefani MTV biography”. Mtv. Retrieved 15 May 2011. The Observer. 5 October 2006 Rousing Rave from the Grave. Retrieved 9 January 2008. BBC News. 3 January 2007. “Sound of 2007: Klaxons“. Retrieved 31 March 2007. The Guardian. 3 February 2007. “The Future’s Bright…“. Retrieved 31 March 2007.

  1. Times Online. 12 November 2006. “Here We Glo Again“. Retrieved 131 February 2009.


Further reading

vteNew wave and post-punk
vteRock music
vteElectronic rock
vtePunk rock
vteElectronic-based music styles
Authority control: National libraries Germany Poland


Leave a Reply